Ruptures can exist in the form of certain difficulties that can be experienced by huge masses of people.

Ruptures can exist in the form of certain difficulties that can be experienced by huge masses of people.

For now, we will not consider more complex options for situations of the second type, such a complication is the inability to identify opponents before the action.

The analysis of a closed situation includes the definition of positions and interests of the parties in relation to the situation, as well as the definition of personal goals of people who occupy these positions. This procedure is called situational analysis. Its product is a common vision of the situation (to its vision are added visions of the situation by other actors). The next step is the actual analysis of the situation in terms of clarifying its common understanding.

In addition to determining the causes of a gap is much more valuable is that each subject sees the situation not only "from his bell tower" but understands his place and the position of others in terms of integrity. This difference is well reflected in the proverb: "Not for fear, but for conscience." Assuming that in a particular situation, the same results were first produced by the decision maker, all other positioners will work "for fear" because they may not understand why the vision is better than their own; in the second case (in a collegial discussion) people work "on conscience".

To situations of the first type we carry all situations connected with internal (production) relations. Situations of this type are designed and played out artificially. During such draws, tutors must bring to the participants the general structure of the game, indicate the basic positions to be taken by the players, as well as drawin our case to analyze) the situation. This type, for example, analyzes "teacher-student" situations and designs simulation games.

Situations of the educational environment belong to the second type, because they have almost no positional dominant (in any case, it must be reconstructed), and the subjects of action are individuals.

The analysis of an open situation involves the definition of the object of joint action, which includes other entities (the analyst himself is also one of such entities). These subjects need to be assigned a position (interests, ways of thinking) and anticipate their reaction to your intentions.


The next step in tutoring can be the introduction to the technique and reality of reflection, which in relation to the meaning and content of the action is given as a means of distinguishing between these two action plans, as well as a means of identifying ways to perform operations. All the questions we have mentioned about the meaning of action, which construct the very reality of actions, arise precisely from the reality of reflection. We emphasize that an adequate distinction between meaning and content is possible in the presence of a reflexive attitude. Of course, there is also intuition, but perhaps we are not mistaken when we assume that there are very, very few managers who constantly make the right decisions based on intuition. And how does the bearer of such an intuitive vision reproduce it in others?

We call reflection such an analysis of the situation when the object of action, action and way of thinking is taken as an object, as a result of which the given object of action and the action itself was chosen. The need for reflective understanding of the situation arises when the implementation of the designed action as a consequence of the analytical work did not give the desired result.

It should be noted that when designing something new, the analyst performs an auxiliary function, ie first, namely: how should it be? what is the available resource?, not what we have?, and then what can be done about it? Reflection should show us where we made a mistake: not the characteristics of the object, inadequately constructed action, not the way of thinking, etc. In the latter case, that is, when finding and applying a new way of thinking can change not only the action but and object.

In the Tutor project, reflective work is performed by the supervisor with the group of tutors, at least at the end of each measure. One of the types of such work is the issues already mentioned in the reports.

Sign technology

Sign technology is a reflection of a specific real phenomenon (positions, concepts) in symbolic form and the attribution to this form of certain essential characteristics.


Schematization is a technique of mental design of a real situation, which reflects (for those who can read the products of such design) significant, in terms of achieving the goals of the "schematizer" of the place, the relationship between them, as well as the organizer. The product of such work is a scheme. From a technical point of view, schematization is a combination of individual signs that indicate the places of reality given to us, their properties and intentions in a single system. It becomes clear that the same reality is sketched differently by different subjects, because everyone has different goals, different training, different experience. Which of the schemes is correct then? The correctness of the schemes can be said only ex post facto. The scheme that has been effectively implemented will be correct, or rather adequate [6].

Like reflection, the procedures of sign engineering and schematization accompany all the work of tutors in the project. These techniques are put above other works. Individual tasks on sign engineering and schematization can be offered as tests.


Design is a separate set of operations and procedures that answer the question: how should it be? The need for design arises when there is a gap in a particular activity. Ruptures can exist in the form of certain difficulties that can be experienced by huge masses of people. For example, Ukraine’s exit from the "modern" state can also be recorded and removed by the thinking products of individuals. The latter include various kinds of inventions. For example, replacing a candle or lamp with a gas lamp, and the latter -electric.

In the design, the first to design a means of removing the gap, then considers the proper structure of the entire system in which this tool must be implemented, then – the search for a method of implementation. To do this, it is necessary to analyze the existing system (situation) and determine the path, capabilities and limitations of its transformation, close to changing the initial design of the tool and the harmful effects of its implementation and operation. The last step (especially necessary in the design of material technical devices) is a description of the conditions under which the tool must be "buried".

In the program "Initial management training" the objects of design (and from the point of view of tutoring – the material on which the described actions are practiced and the techniques of their implementation are mastered) are farms, enterprises, financial and legal systems, fiscal policy, traditions, etc. These works are organized by the participants of the "Game Engineering" project.

In the educational environment, project situations include situations of individual students searching for "their place under the sun."


Problematization is a procedure that establishes a discrepancy between the idea of ​​an object and its "real" device, ie this vision of the object of action does not allow the implementation of the action. The product of problematization is the fixation of the gap. Thus, the problematization procedure is an integral part of both design and analytics.


We have described nine units of experience that high school tutors should pass on to beginners. In the process of broadcasting the experience, students go through an intensive training school. Tutors need to recreate situations where they themselves have received or not received (and it happens) this or that experience, and then design similar situations for those newcomers with whom they had to work. Directed work with specific newcomers develops in tutors their own techniques of accumulation and transfer of experience, techniques of organization and management of people. In addition, the situation of transfer of experience of each of the nine units mentioned by us requires the tutor to apply them in their activities, ie these units are simultaneously the content of the broadcast, the means of translation and ways of organizing actions.

In the project "Tutor" projects are designed, performing which, students receive techniques and ways to gain experience and organize small groups of people (5-9 people). From this point of view, the "Tutor" project is the form through which students (tutors) gain managerial experience.

Author: P. Andrukhovets


Project method in the program "Open the heart of the mind"

The search for ways to form the intellectual elite of the future information society through the involvement of students in research has drawn our attention to the method of projects

The aim of our work was to develop learning technology and non-rigid guidance of some elements of scientific creativity of secondary school students on the basis of this method.

How to manage educational activities related to scientific creativity? It is known that the process of productive creation is technologized, so today they have the right to the existence of technology of external influence on it.

"Everything to come has been in the ages" – as if confirming this biblical truth, the project method, which was widespread in pedagogy in the early twentieth century, is being revived today, as it fully meets the challenges of reforming modern education. Most of the scientific work in this direction is devoted to the introduction of project technologies in labor education, computer science, foreign languages, literature, history, natural sciences, as well as in educational extracurricular activities.

For the first time we tried to apply the method of projects to solve the problem of organizing research activities of secondary school students. The urgency of this problem is growing and confirmed by government documents on modern education.

We have developed our own project of the program to promote students’ scientific creativity "Open the heart of the mind". The developed technology of teaching students to design research works includes many well-known in pedagogical science and practice methods and techniques (active teaching methods, methods of developing creative thinking, developmental and productive learning, methods of systems analysis, theories of inventive problems), but in general it is its own, original technology, because it combines the known didactic and psychological principles of forming a creative personality of the student in a certain system.